Frequently Asked Questions

faqs diskmfr

DiskMFR develops, manufactures, and supports NAND flash storage and security products with perfection and reliability in mind. All DiskMFR products are fully dedicated to the embedded and NetCom markets with their highly demanding applications. Each aspect of a DiskMFR product is targeting the best possible solution:

  • The components are selected for low defects, extended longevity, and wide temperature range
  • The firmware features enable the highest endurance and retention with options that go far beyond commonly available standards
  • Our own PCB development guarantees high tolerance for frequent temperature cycles
  • In-house manufacturing creates a wide range of products at the highest quality level
  • The DiskMFR security options add a new level of protection to the stored data or even to the complete system by offering a truly secure key storage via an upgradeable and replaceable hardware device

This is summarized in three words: StoreSecureTrust.

Product Set

  •  Leading-edge technology: Broad range of form factors and interfaces tailored for the embedded and Netcom market
  • Specific feature set: Firmware customized for performance, specific feature set or feature adaption


  • Quality management system: ISO 9001
  • High reliability: Thorough qualification process, 100% test at full specification range

Sales Support

  • Intensive customer relationship: DiskMFR Warranty & RMA
  • management: Quick web-based product availability check

Technical Support

  • Design-in: Direct access to experienced design, system, and firmware engineers with our FAE teams

Product Life Cycle Management

  • Locked BOM (H/W and F/W): Controlled BOM and Firmware, Change Notification Process
  • Longevity: Up to 10 years

Supply Chain Management

  • Worldwide Support: Global Key Account teams
  • Stable and reliable supply: Strategic partnership with key supplies, Predictive analytics forecasting process


  • Price/Performance: TCO optimized products and services, Design to cost and customer requirements

For all of our products, We will supply ”Limited 5-year Warranty with free technical supports”.

Solid-State Drive

An SSD (Solid State Drive) is basically a flash storage device, which is the next-generation equivalent of an HDD (Hard Disk Drive). Where they differ greatly is an HDD contains spinning magnetic platters which are read and written to by heads floating on a cushion of air along with a series of guides known as ‘actuator arms’, while an SSD contains no moving parts, and instead of spinning platters uses a special type of memory known as NAND flash. The most important advantages of an SSD compared to an HDD are as below:The key advantage is that they are much faster than an HDD.

  • An SSD contains no moving parts, so there is no mechanical wear.
  • An SSD produces next to no heat at all.
  • An SSD is silent, as it contains no mechanical parts.
  • An SSD consumes much less power compared to an HDD.
  • Robustness. Drop an HDD onto the floor and the chances of it still working are remote. Drop an SSD, and unless you are very unlucky, the SSD will not be damaged and should continue to function normally.
  • An SSD has very much faster access times compared to an HDD.
  • An SSD has much greater data throughput than an HDD.
  • 2.5inch SSD  32GB-2TB (SLC/MLC/TLC/QLC)
  • M.2 NVMe SSD 128GB-1TB (MLC/TLC/QLC)

One of the biggest differences between SSD and HDD is that SSD drives have no moving parts. Since there are no moving parts, SSD drives are significantly faster, quieter, and more resistant to shock and vibration.

  • As we mentioned above an HDD has spinning magnetic platters to store the data, and that data is read or written by a series of read/write heads. Each platter has its own head, and the head is moved from the outside of the platter to the inside of the platter by the slide actuator assembly. The head can only be in one place at any one time, and it takes time to move that head from one location to another. Even if it’s only a 1mm away, it will still take a few milliseconds to move the head before reading or writing can recommence.
  • An SSD reads and writes its data from NAND flash, and it’s not uncommon for the SSD controller to have eight channels to transfer data to and from the NAND. Also, the time taken to access the data can be 100 times faster than it is on an HDD. So as well as being capable of 8 times the throughput, it can also access the data much faster than an HDD.
  • If we compare a few SATA 6Gbps SSDs with one of the fastest HDDs currently available, in a real-world multitasking test, you will find the fastest SSD is very nearly 10 times faster than the HDD.

Now there are two types of SSD Solid-state drives (SSDs) based on flash memory: MLC SSD, SLC SSD. TLC SSD and QLC SSD Generally, the SSDs can provide faster transfer speed, higher reliability, and lower power consumption rather than HDDs.

  • A. Based on Nand Flash
  1. SLC or Single Level Cell allows for the storage of one bit of information per NAND memory cell. SLC NAND offers relatively fast read and write capabilities, high endurance, and relatively simple error correction algorithms. SLC is typically the most expensive NAND technology. An SLC NAND Flash PE cycle is written as 100K times in its Datasheet while the read is unlimited. SLC drives are more suited for enterprise and digital recording systems environments because of frequently write operations.
  2. MLC or Multi-Level Cell, technology in general is less robust than SLC as there are two bits stored in each cell. If one cell is lost two bits will be lost. An MLC NAND Flash PE cycle is written between 3,000 to 5,000 times while the read is unlimited. The drives are usually available in larger capacities and are usually cost-effective. MLC based SSDs are ideal storage devices for consumer and few write operation environments.
  3. TLC flash (triple-level cell flash) is a type of NAND flash memory that stores three bits of data per cell. TLC is also known as MLC-3, 3-bit MLC, and X3. … The 3D NAND enables higher storage densities at a lower cost per bit and improves the endurance of the flash.
  4. Quad-level cell (QLC) drives are the latest development of flash storage technology. As the name suggests, the technology stores four bits per cell. The way QLC flash and all other NAND flash stores data is essentially the same, using an electrical charge to determine whether each cell is a “0” or a “1”.
  • Based on Host Interface
  1. SATA SSD: SATA SSDs are based on the industry-standard SATA interface.
  2. PCIe/ NVMe SSD: PCIe SSDs are based on the industry-standard PCIe/ NVMe interface.
  3. PATA 44PIN: PATA SSD based on the industry-standard IDE interface

With regard to physically installing the drive, it’s actually more or less similar to installing an HDD.

  1. If it’s a laptop, you just replace the HDD with an SSD (assuming that the laptop has a 2.5inch drive bay).
  2. If it’s a desktop PC with a 3.5 inch HDD, then all you need is a 3.5 inch to 2.5inch converter bracket. The electrical connections are the same as a SATA HDD, but there some things that you should be aware of before you use the SSD.
  • For technical reasons, that are incidental to this guide, the partition on an SSD needs to be aligned. This is to make sure that the NAND pages start at the correct offset. Failure to align the partition will result in lower performance and will induce higher wear on the NAND.
  • Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 will align the partition correctly when you create the partition. Windows XP won’t. So if you are using XP, then perhaps it’s time to update.
For a new Windows 7 or 8 build.
  • Simply connect the SSD then enter the system BIOS and set the SATA transfer mode to AHCI. IDE mode is not recommended for an SSD, as IDE mode can’t support NCQ (native command queuing).
  • Place your Windows 7/8 DVD in your burner and boot from the burner. When you get to the installation screen, select the advanced options, then click on create a partition (selecting the SSD). The SSD will be initialized, and the partition will be automatically aligned when it’s created.
For an existing build.
  • Connect the SSD to a spare SATA socket, start the system and when it boots to the desktop, right-click on the “Computer Icon”, and then select “Manage”, followed by “Disk Management” from the menu. If the SSD is new it will need to be initialized and a popup should appear. When it does, select the MBR option. The SSD will then be initialized.
  • Once this is done the RAW partition should appear in the list. Right-click on the SSD and select “create a simple partition”. Select the default which would normally be NTFS, and make sure you select the quick format option (NEVER do a FULL FORMAT ON AN SSD).
  • Once this completes you are ready to install the operating system on the SSD, or use it as a storage drive, if that’s what you prefer.
  • Basically, this is down to the number of NAND chip packages on the SSD, and the density of these packages. Almost all modern SSDs have a controller that can use multiple channels to read and write to the NAND. NAND is rather slow on its own. SSDs get their speed from reading and writing to several NAND packages at the same time. The sweet spot will generally be SSDs with 8 channels addressing 16 NAND chip packages.
  • Again we must go back to MLC NAND basics, and the read, modify, NAND block write method. But if the SSD controller is smart and fast enough, why just do one of these processes at a time? In actual fact, they don’t. While the SSD is busy doing the writing process on one block, it can also use another channel to do the read and modify. This is called interleaving, but unfortunately, 16 NAND chip packages are required to get the best out of this method with an SSD controller which supports 8 channels to the NAND array.
  • This makes perfect sense on the larger capacity SSDs. For example for an SSD with 256GB of NAND, you can use 16GB NAND chip packages, and for a 512GB SSD, you can use 32GB packages in order to get the magic 16 NAND chip packages. Unfortunately trying to maintain these 16 NAND chip packages on small capacity SSDs would be prohibitively expensive and would result in small capacity SSDs being non-competitive.
  • Things may change in the not too distant future. ONFI 3 NAND will soon be available, supporting speeds of up to 400MB/s per NAND die. So it is certainly possible that only 4 or 8 NAND chip packages are required to fully saturate the SATA 6Gbps system bus. If this should happen then smaller capacity SSDs, at least for sequential reading and writing could be every bit as fast as their larger counterparts.

S.M.A.R.T stands for “Self-Monitor and Report Technology”, which is built-in hard drives and solid-state drives to indicate the condition of drives. All DiskMFR SSD series support S.M.A.R.T, and DiskMFR provides SSD Dash, a free downloaded tool on DiskMFR official website to help users get S.M.A.R.T values easily. The S.M.A.R.T contains Average P/E Cycle Count, Total Power-on Time, Power-on Cycle Count, Total Host Writes/Read, and other specific information.

System cloning is the recommended way to transfer the operating system to SSD. It would keep all data, setting, drivers that needed for your computer. To clone your drive, DiskMFR recommends EaseUS Todo Backup as an assistant, please visit to have more detail.

In SSD, lots of scattered data pieces will generate in use. The Garbage Collection (so-called GC) mechanism is to move these pieces into specific physical units and then to reuse the original units to store new data. Garbage Collection is necessary and results in the overall performance of SSD. DiskMFR optimizes the algorithm for highly efficient GC to ensure SSD works smoothly.

TRIM is an OS (Operating System) command set, which was started supporting Windows 7. When the user deletes a file, OS sends TRIM to inform SSD about the operation, then SSD marks the specific storage units to the invalid state. Once the GC operates, GC could be more precise and efficient to erase the storage unit without unnecessary reallocation of data in flash memory.

M.2 is known as NGFF (Next Generation Form Factor), enables expansion, contraction, and higher integration of functions onto a single form factor specification. SSD is one of the devices that adopt M.2, and it offers slim, compact-sized to be flexible in different devices.

  1. Testing values vary with different benchmark tools.
  2. The version of tools also has an impact on testing results.
  3. The platforms could influence the result as well. Generally, the performance would be better on a high-end platform.
  4. If SSD was used before and contains data inside, it could get a bit slower. Every single test has little different results even in the same condition.

M.2 slot may only support the SATA protocol. Please contact the service center or visit the websites of your PC/laptop/motherboard manufacturer to realize the specification details before purchasing M.2 PCIe SSD.

SSD has a mechanism, wear leveling. This mechanism ensures every single physical storage units get the same P/E cycle. It aims to extend working life. Defragmentation is not required.

Modifying or tampering with your SSD drive without our confirmation will void your warranty.

No, please verify your laptop or desktop if support NVMe SSD Drives.

The useful life of an SSD is governed by three key parameters: SSD NAND flash technology, capacity of the drive, and the application usage model. In general, the following life cycle calculator can be used to figure out how long the drive will last.

  • Life [years] = (Endurance [P/E cycles] * Capacity [physical, bytes] * Overprovisioning Factor) / (Write Speed [Bps] * Duty Cycle [cycles] * Write % * WAF) / (36 *24* 3,600)
  1. Parameters: Endurance, NAND P/E Cycle: 100K SLC, 30K eMLC, 3K MLC
  2. Capacity: Usable capacity of the SSD
  3. Overprovisioning Factor: Over provision NAND percentage
  4. Write Speed: Speed of write-in Bytes per second
  5. Duty Cycle: Usage duty cycle
  6. Write %: percentage of writes during SSD usage
  7. WAF: Controller Write Amplification factor

Yes, will be able to supply you with the software according to ordered item to modify the series number.

It is usually a compatibility problem, and you can try to re-open the card with a new version of the software, which usually resolves the problem.

It is usually a contact problem. You only need to remove and insert the SSD interface to effectively contact the computer interface.

The overall performance of SSDS is determined by the hard disk interface (SATA, IDE, PCI-E, etc.), the Controller IC (scheme), the efficiency of the loss-balancing algorithm (firmware), the raw flash bandwidth, and the circuit design and manufacturing process of the PCB version.

For SSDs, performance has little to do with how much data is stored. Whether empty or nearly full, the flash memory’s wear-leveling management algorithm will work as usual. Some common file systems such as NTFS and FAT32 may experience performance degradation when running out of space, but this is a software issue and has nothing to do with whether or not you are using solid state storage is not relevant. In the future, when file systems specifically for SSDs become available, there may also be examples of how the amount of data stored on the drive affects performance. The example of the performance impact of how much data is stored on the drive may also occur in the future when file systems specifically for SSDs are available.

Solid-state drives are physically indistinguishable from FLASH drives, memory cards, and flash memory in mobile phones, so you don’t have to worry about x-rays.

The answer to this question is complicated. Solid-state disks (SSDS) store data in different ways from traditional disks. For example, SSDs use a “loss balancing” mechanism to prevent rapid aging caused by frequent reads of a storage unit, which averages the number of reads and writes to each block. Current operating systems are not prepared for this either. The main principle of disk defragments is to put data that needs to be read frequently in a place that can be accessed at high speed, while data that needs to be accessed rarely is stacked in the corner. Solid-state drives, by their very nature, can find any piece of data very quickly. Current disk-titration tools do little to optimize SSD file systems. Therefore, it is recommended that SSD users disable automatic disk defragmentation and do not manually defragment.

None of the current file systems are optimized for solid-state drives. The computer industry has spent decades targeting rotating media storage for optimizations, but the advent of solid-state drives has completely nullified those optimizations. Fortunately, with the current speed of SSDs, following the requirements of older file systems to work like traditional hard drives working as they do, it doesn’t take much to lose. In the near future, however, we will certainly see file systems optimized for SSDs. Microsoft in Windows 7 will be optimized for SSDs, and the system will disable automatic disk defragmentation when using SSDs. One of the commands, ATA trim, can notify the SSD The ATA trim command, which notifies the SSD that a block is no longer in use, allows the SSD to reclaim its space and incorporate it into the next “wear balance” operation.

Over the life cycle of an SSD, many factors can affect its performance. One of the most important is the issue of data fragmentation. Unfortunately, there is no way to externally measure the impact of data fragmentation on SSDs. As stated above, test programs may be able to detect the performance difference between an SSD’s internal storage striping with or without performance differences, but this does not significantly impact the user experience. Optimization of the SSD file system will further address this issue in the future.


CFast is the latest evolution of card format from the CompactFlash Association and provides a higher maximum transfer rate than CompactFlash® cards. CFast cards are similar in size to CompactFlash cards but do not have any pins which can bend in the connector. The format was primarily designed to support the capabilities of the next-generation camcorders and DSLR cameras.

No. Despite physical similarities, CFast cards are not compatible with CompactFlash devices.

The development of technologies like XQD™ and CFast™ addresses the increasing capabilities of today’s cameras, as well as the ever-growing demands placed on professional photographers and videographers.

Canon and Phase One have announced support for the CFast card format, so you can expect to see cameras from them in the future.


  • RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It acts as a middle ground between the small, super-fast cache in your CPU and the large, super-slow storage of your hard drive or solid-state drive (SSD). Your system uses RAM to store working parts of the operating system temporarily, and the data your applications are using actively. RAM is not a form of permanent storage.
  • Think of your computer as an office. The hard drive is the filing cabinet in the corner. The RAM is like an entire office workstation, while the CPU cache is like the actual working area where you actively work on a document.
  • The more RAM you have, the more things you can have quick access to at any one time. Just as having a bigger desk can hold more bits of paper on it without becoming messy and unwieldy (as well as requiring more trips back to the filing cabinet to reorganize).
  • Unlike an office desk, however, RAM cannot act as permanent storage. The contents of your system RAM are lost as soon as you turn the power off. Losing power is like wiping your desk clean of every document.
  • DDR3/3L 1GB-16GB (1333MHz, 1600MHz) DIMM or SODIMM
  • DDR4 4GB-32GB (2400MHz, 2666MHz, 2933MHz, 3200MHz) DIMM or SODIMM

CL stands for CAS Latency. It is a programmable register in the SDRAM that sets the number of clock cycles between the issuance of the READ command and when the data comes out. A smaller number for CL indicates faster SDRAM within the same frequency.

  • When people talk about RAM, they’re usually talking about Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM). SDRAM is what this article discusses, too. For most desktops and laptops, RAM appears as a stick that you can insert into the motherboard.
  • Unfortunately, there is a rising trend for super thin and light laptops to have the RAM soldered to the motherboard directly in the interest of saving space. However, this sacrifices upgradability and repairability.
  • Do not confuse SDRAM with SRAM, which stands for Static RAM. Static RAM is the memory used for CPU caches, among other things. It is much faster but also limited in its capacity, making it unsuitable as a replacement for SDRAM. It is highly unlikely you will encounter SRAM in general usage, so it is not something you should worry about.
  • For the most part, RAM comes in two sizes: DIMM (Dual In-Line Memory Module), which is found in desktops and servers, and SO-DIMM (Small Outline DIMM), which is found in laptops and other small form factor computers.
  • Though the two RAM form factors use the same technology and functionally work in exactly the same way, you cannot mix them. You can’t just jam a DIMM stick into a SO-DIMM slot, and vice versa (the pins and slots don’t line up!).
  • When you are buying RAM, the first thing to figure out is its form factor. Nothing else matters if the stick won’t fit!
  • The RAM you use in your computer operates using Double Data Rate (DDR). DDR RAM means that two transfers happen per clock cycle. Newer types of RAM are updated versions of the same technology, hence why RAM modules carry the label of DDR, DDR2, DDR3, and so on.
  • While all RAM generations are exactly the same physical size and shape, they still aren’t compatible. You cannot use DDR3 RAM in a motherboard that only supports DDR2. Likewise, DDR3 doesn’t fit in a DDR4 slot. To stop any confusion, each RAM generation has a notch cut in the pins at different locations. That means you cannot accidentally mix your RAM modules up or damage your motherboard, even if you buy the wrong type.


DDR2 is the oldest kind of RAM you’re likely to come across today. It has 240 pins (200 for SO-DIMM). DDR2 has been well and truly superseded, but you can still buy it in limited quantities to upgrade older machines. Otherwise, DDR2 is obsolete.

  • DDR3 was released way back in 2007. Although it was officially superseded by DDR4 in 2014, you will still find a lot of systems using the older RAM standard. Why? Because it wasn’t until 2016 (two years after DDR4 launched) that DDR4 capable systems really picked up steam. Furthermore, DDR3 RAM covers a huge range of CPU generations, stretching from Intel’s LGA1366 socket through to LGA1151, as well as AMD’s AM3/AM3+ and FM1/2/2+. (For Intel, that’s from the introduction of the Intel Core i7 line in 2008 through to 7th generation Kaby Lake!)
  • DDR3 RAM has the same number of pins as DDR2. However, it runs a lower voltage and has higher timings (more on RAM timings in a moment), so isn’t compatible. Also, DDR3 SO-DIMMs have 204 pins versus DDR2’s 200 pins.

  • DDR4 hit the market in 2014, yet still hasn’t taken complete control of the RAM market. A prolonged period of exceptionally high RAM prices put a pause on many people upgrading. But as prices decrease, more people make the switch, especially as the latest AMD and Intel CPU generations all use DDR4 RAM exclusively. That means if you want to upgrade to a more powerful CPU, you need a new motherboard and new RAM, too.
  • DDR4 drops the RAM voltage even further, from 1.5V to 1.2V, while increasing the number of pins to 288.

  • DDR5 is set to hit consumer markets in 2019. But given how long the proliferation of a new RAM generation usually takes, expect to hear more about it in 2020. RAM manufacturer, SK Hynix, expect DDR5 to make up 25% of the market in 2020, and 44% in 2021.
  • DDR5 will continue with a 288-pin design, although the RAM voltage will drop to 1.1V. DDR5 RAM performance is expected to double the fastest standard of the previous DDR4 generation. For example, SK Hynix revealed the technical details of a DDR5-6400 RAM module, the fastest possible allowed under the DDR5 standard.
  • But, as with any new computer hardware, expect an extremely high price at launch. Also, if you’re considering buying a new motherboarddon’t focus on DDR5. It isn’t available yet, and despite what SK Hynix says, it will take Intel and AMD a while to prepare

You’ve wrapped your head around SDRAM, DIMMs, and DDR generations. But what about the other long strings of numbers in the RAM model? What do they mean? What is RAM measured in? And what about ECC and Swap? Here are the other RAM specification terms you need to know.

Clock Speed, Transfers, Bandwidth
  • You may have seen RAM referred to by two sets of numbers, like DDR3-1600 and PC3-12800. These both reference and allude to the generation of the RAM and its transfer speed. The number after DDR/PC and before the hyphen refers to the generation: DDR2 is PC2, DDR3 is PC3, DDR4 is PC4.
  • The number paired after DDR refers to the number of mega transfers per second (MT/s). For example, DDR3-1600 RAM operates at 1,600MT/s. The DDR5-6400 RAM mentioned above will operate at 6,400MT/s—much faster! The number paired after PC refers to the theoretical bandwidth in megabytes per second. For example, PC3-12800 operates at 12,800MB/s.
  • It is possible to overclock RAM, just like you can overclock a CPU or graphics card. Overclocking increases the RAM’s bandwidth. Manufacturers sometimes sell pre-overclocked RAM, but you can overclock it yourself. Just make sure your motherboard supports the higher RAM clock speed!
  • You might be wondering if you can mix RAM modules of different clock speeds. The answer is that yes, you can, but they’ll all run at the clock speed of the slowest module. If you want to use faster RAM, don’t mix it with your older, slower modules. You can, in theory, mix RAM brands, but it isn’t advisable. You run a greater chance of encountering a blue screen of death or other random crashes when you mix RAM brands or different RAM clock speeds.

Timing And Latency
  • You will sometimes see RAM modules with a series of numbers, like 9-10-9-27. These numbers are referred to as timings. A RAM timing is a measurement of the performance of the RAM module in nanoseconds. The lower the numbers, the quicker the RAM reacts to requests.
  • The first number (9, in the example) is the CAS latency. The CAS latency refers to the number of clock cycles it takes for data requested by the memory controller to become available to a data pin.
  • You might notice that DDR3 RAM generally has higher timing numbers than DDR2, and DDR4 generally has higher timing numbers than DDR3. Yet, DDR4 is faster than DDR3, which is faster than DDR2. Weird, right?
  • We can explain this using DDR3 and DDR4 as examples.
  • The lowest speed DDR3 RAM runs is 533MHz, which means a clock cycle of 1/533000000, or 1.87 ns. With a CAS latency of 7 cycles, total latency is 1.87 x 7 = 13.09 ns. (“ns” stands for nanoseconds.)
  • Whereas the lowest speed DDR4 RAM runs at is 800MHz, which means a clock cycle of 1/800000000, or 1.25 ns. Even if it has a higher CAS of 9 cycles, total latency is 1.25 x 9 = 11.25 ns. That’s why it’s faster!
  • For most people, capacity trumps clock speed and latency every time. You will get much more benefit from 16GB of DDR4-1600 RAM than you get from 8GB of DDR4-2400 RAM. In most cases, timing and latency are the last points of consideration.

  • Error Correcting Code (ECC) RAM is a special kind of memory module that aims to detect and correct data corruption. ECC ram is used in servers where errors in mission-critical data could be disastrous. For example, personal or financial information stored in RAM while manipulating a linked database.
  • Consumer motherboards and processors don’t usually support ECC-compatible RAM. Unless you are building a server that specifically requires ECC RAM, you should stay away from it.

DXDIAG screenshotGo to your Start menu and type in dxdiag then press Enter. You can all sorts of valuable information about your computer, and your total amount of memory in megabytes is found at the bottom of the System tab on the DirectX Diagnostic Tool. As you can see in this picture, I have 16,384MB of RAM, which works out to 16.384GB.

Hard drives fill up over time as you fill them with more information. However, unlike hard drives, RAM clears all data when powered off. That means you can’t run out of memory space, although you can fill up your memory while running your PC if there are too many programs running at the same time.

Video memory (VRAM) is used by your computer to process visual information. VRAM can be found on video cards and today’s best video cards have anywhere from 2GB to 4GB of video memory. The more VRAM you have, the better your PC graphics will be.

Currently, the best RAM for PC gaming is DDR4 RAM. Speeds 3000MHz or higher for Intel, 3600MHz or higher for AMD.

Memory Card

  • Memory cards are small devices (some no bigger than your thumbnail) that are used to store electronic data. This can be anything (depending on the device) from photos, music, movies, games, documents, programs, and more. While cards come in a variety of shapes and sizes and are available for a variety of products, all memory cards do essentially the same thing — store data.
  • Memory cards also referred to as flash memory, are essentially chips that allow users to write and rewrite data multiple times. Some of the key features of flash memory cards include their small size and the ability to retain data without a power supply. This allows them to fit into a variety of portable consumer devices.

By Capacities

  • SD / The second-generation Secure Digital (SDSC): ≤ 2GB
  • The Secure Digital High Capacity (SDHC): >2 GB–32 GB
  • The Secure Digital eXtended Capacity (SDXC): >32 GB–2 TB
  • The Secure Digital Ultra Capacity (SDUC): >2 TB–128 TB


By Sizes

  • Standard SD card: 32.0×24.0×2.1 mm(1.26×0.94×0.083 inch)
  • Mini SD card: 21.5×20.0×1.4 mm(0.85×0.79×0.055 inch)
  • Micro SD card: 15.0×11.0×1.0 mm(0.59×0.43×0.039 inch)

  • Memory cards first took off as the storage medium of choice in photography, with cameras dispensing with film rolls to instead rely on the much smaller and cost-effective memory cards. As well as digital cameras, memory cards are commonly used in mobile phones to store information like photos and music, as well as in camcorders to store video.
  • Memory cards are also used in other consumer electronic devices such as televisions, portable game devices, printers, DVD recorders, and more. Many TVs come with card slots that allow users to see any stored photos on a big screen, while some printers allow you to print directly from images stored on a card.
  • While you can easily swap cards from one product to another, it’s important to remember that different devices take different types of memory cards. If you already have a device that takes a memory card and want to buy more gear, make sure your intended purchase can take the same type of card.
  • Over the past few years, the number of different types of memory cards has reduced drastically, due to standardization. The main types currently available include SD, Memory Stick, and CompactFlash. Other, less common varieties in older devices include MMC, xD Picture Card and SmartMedia.
  • Secure Digital (SD) is the most widespread format, and come in various different capacities and speeds. Memory Stick is a proprietary format developed by Sony and as a result, is found mainly in Sony devices. CompactFlash is a standard specifically developed for digital cameras and is now most commonly used in higher-end SLRs. The xD Picture Card is being phased out, a proprietary format developed by Fujifilm and Olympus.
  • Devices will usually only take one variety of memory cards, although some cameras and camcorders have a single slot that accepts two different varieties of cards, such as Sony cameras, which generally take SD and Memory Stick. High-end digital SLRs may also have two or more slots for different types of cards, such as the Nikon D300s, which has an SD and CompactFlash slot side-by-side.
  • Many formats also have sub-variants. SD, for example, also comes in miniSD and microSD (also known as TransFlash) forms, while Memory Sticks have the Memory Stick Pro Duo variants. While the underlying technology is the same, the size and form factor is vastly different in these variants.
  • When it comes to the safety of your data, memory cards have some key advantages over other storage devices such as hard disks or CDs/DVDs. Memory cards are much more shockproof than other storage mediums. Since there are no moving parts in a memory card, they’re much less prone to damage from movement, which can occur in a normal hard drive.
  • They’re also much less fragile than a CD/DVD. The case of a memory card can easily take a scratch or two, while scratches on the underside of a CD or DVD will most often result in data loss or an unreadable disk. Since memory cards are physically so small, perhaps the greatest risk of data loss lies with losing the entire card itself, rather than by some other accident.
  • Most portable devices come with cables to link directly to a PC or laptop, allowing you to transfer any images or data stored on your memory card. If you don’t have your device or cable with you, however, there are other alternatives.
  • The majority of new PCs and laptops are now being sold with built-in card readers. These allow you to slide your card directly into the computer, from which you can access any data stored on the card. There are also stand-alone card readers you can purchase. These card readers can usually read more than one type of card, which is handy if you’ve got several devices with different memory units.

SD cards also come in a range of speed variants. This is often displayed on the card itself as a class rating in a small circle, ranging from Class 2 to Class 10.

ClassBest used forMinimum write speed
Class 2Standard-definition video recording, general stills photography in compact cameras2MBps
Class 4HD video recording, continuous stills photography in compact cameras4MBps
Class 6Full 1080p video recording, continuous and regular stills photography in high-end compacts or ILCs6MBps
Class 10Full 1080p video recording, professional camcorder or continuous high-resolution stills in SLRs10MBps


  • High megapixel cameras, for example, need more memory space per shot than low megapixel models. The type of data being stored also determines how much you can fit on a memory card. Images take up more room than text documents. Digital music takes up even more, while the video is another space hog.
  • The quality of your files is the final determinant in how much you can cram onto a memory card. The general rule is the better the quality, the more space it will take. High-resolution photos, for example, require more memory space than low-resolution shots. If you are shooting in RAW mode on your camera, each file requires a lot more space than a regular JPEG image. Music compressed at a higher quality (otherwise known as bitrate) will also take more room than something with average compression.
  • The table below shows the approximate number of JPEG images (100 percent quality) able to be stored on a memory card.
MegapixelsFile size1GB card2GB card4GB card8GB card16GB card32GB card
6 megapixels1.8MB47695319073814762915,258
8 megapixels2.4MB35771514302861572211,444
10 megapixels3MB2865721144228845779155
12 megapixels3.6MB238476953190738147629
14 megapixels4.2MB204408817163432696539
16 megapixels4.8MB178357715143028615722
22 megapixels6.6MB130260520104020804161

USB Flash Drive

USB (Universal Serial Bus) is an interface technology, consisting of a serial bus, that connects and transfers data between a host computer and peripheral devices. USB was originally designed to integrate computers and telephones, USB operates under a master/slave scheme to communicate between the host and the peripheral. Utilizing a true plug-and-play concept, the technology provides easy connection and configuration of peripheral devices without opening the computer. Depending on the device’s data requirements, USB has a low speed to super speed capabilities. Since its inception, USB has had four major consumer versions: USB 1.0, USB 1.1, USB 2.0 and now USB 3.0

The primary function of a USB flash drive is data storage. Video, audio, pictures, and other types of files can be stored on flash drives for professional or personal applications. As this storage medium grows in popularity, more brands and businesses use flash drives as a promotional tool.

That depends. Some manufacturers produce waterproof flash drives to enhance their durability. Many users attest to their flash drives holding up to laundry cycles; however, you will want to check your own flash drive’s specifications and warranty before attempting, which is not advisable. There is no reason to actively tempt fate. Be advised that you should never plug a wet flash drive into a USB port.

The USB flash drive goes by a variety of synonyms that include: jump drivethumb drivekeychain drivememory stickmemory keypen drivedata stickUSB driveUSB dongleUSB stick.

There are three primary parts to a USB flash drive: the Printed Circuit Board, which includes the metal USB connector, the memory storage chip of NAND flash, and the controller chip.

The controller is responsible for operating the driver’s commands, such as reading and writing.

They are varying grades of flash memory. SLC (single-layer cell memory) stores one-bit value per cell and MLC (multi-layer cell memory) stores multiple bit values per cell. While MLC has a greater density for storage and lowers the cost per bit, SLC typically has greater endurance with 100,000 cycles versus MLC’s 10,000 cycles. SLC can also operate at higher temperatures.

The primary difference between each version is data transfer rates. USB 1.1 could operate at 12 Mbit/s and 1.5 Mbits/s. USB 2.0 can operate at 480 Mbit/s in addition to the slower speeds. USB 3.0 is backward compatible and can operate up to 4.8 Gbps. USB 3.0 also carries four additional wires than previous versions for bidirectional data transfers.

16MB, 32MB, 64MB, 128MB, 256MB, 512MB, 1GB, 2GB, 4GB, 8GB, 16GB, 32GB, 64GB, 128GB, 256GB, 512GB, 1TB, 2TB.

The life expectancy depends on the number of reads and writes cycles it endures. Each lifespan can vary depending on the quality of the drive but it is safe to say they achieve anywhere between 10,000 to 100,000 cycles.

The read and write speeds of flash drives vary from vendor to vendor. USB 2.0 drives can read anywhere from 14 to 34 MBps for reading speeds and 4 to 28 MBps for write speeds. The newer USB 3.0 flash drives can achieve up to 80 MBps read speeds and 60 MBps write speeds.

Most of the time, yes. The backward compatibility of a USB 3.0 device depends on the manufacture. The certification office does not require USB 3.0 devices to work on a USB 2.0 computer system; however, most manufacturers produce devices to be backward compatible to capture a larger percentage of their respective markets.

The main advantages of USB flash drives are their re-usability, flash memory, portability, and USB interface. Unlike optical media, data on USB drives can easily be changed, deleted, or added without the lengthy setup of data transfer for burning discs. Because of the flash memory, they do not have moving parts, which eliminates the chance for mechanical failure of component parts. They are portable, compact for their storage capabilities, and have minimal power requirements. Also, the universal availability of USB connections on computers allows the device to be plugged into any modern computer without the need for an intermediate interface.

The disadvantages of USB flash drives include: easily lost due to small size, a lack of write-protection, and the fact that unprotected drives are prone to getting malware or spreading it.

USB flash drives can be used with nearly any OS including WindowsMac, and Linux.

Yes. You can quite easily purchase custom USB drives from DiskMFR. You can consult with our art and production departments to design the drive you want. Just let us know your opinion on design.

The most common USB flash drive materials include plastic, metal, wood, rubber, and epoxy.

The price of your custom flash drive depends on a number of factors: the storage size, the type of material or print process used, and the complexity of the design. As flash drives become more popular and more efficient ways are discovered to produce them, prices will continue to drop. Please let us know your opinion.

USB Drives can get viruses as well as spyware or malware. In fact, a large portion of infected computers is infected through the use of a USB flash drive unknowingly by the user. On Windows 7 and Macintosh computers, the AutoRun feature has been disabled by default to help prevent the spread of viruses and other harmful software from infecting the host computer.

  • There are actually several different ways to prevent information from being deleted. The first method is to create a Read-Only Partition. In a Read-Only Partition, a section of the USB flash memory is reserved for specific files and is told that this section is meant to be read-only.
  • The second method is to create a CD partition on the USB drive. This method works almost identical to the first method, with the one exception that a CD partition can Auto Play when inserted into a computer. Both methods prevent a user from deleting or manipulating the files but do not stop a user from copying the information.

Please let us know what you require, and you will get our reply within 24 hours.

  • Our team will answer your inquiries within 24 hours.
  • Your information will be kept strictly confidential.

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