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Hard Disk General Engineering Testing And Tuning

Here's why you need performance tuning, but there are really two reasons: one is to get better performance (if what you already have is working fine, but tuning it can work even better). The second is to meet increasing business requirements through performance tuning.

Hard Disk Testing And Tuning

Hardware

Hard Disk Type

NVME > SSD > HDD
Different hardware manufacturers also have different performance

Disk topology

Single plate JBOD/RAID groups
The RAID group type affects the write performance

Hard disk backplane

Direct/Expander

RAID Card

  • Indicates the processing performance and features of the RAID controller card, and whether the RAID controller card has a cache
  • RAID firmware versions also affect performance. You are advised to upgrade the LATEST FW

The BIOS configuration

BIOS OptionsSetting Value
Support SmmuDisabled
CPU Prefetching ConfigurationDisabled
Power PolicyPerformance
PCIe Max Payload512B (Suitable for NVMe)

960G SSD Hard Drive Test:

fio --ioengine=libaio --randrepeat=0 --norandommap --filename=/dev/sdb --numjobs=1 --iodepth=128 --rw=write --thread --direct=1 --group_reporting --name=mytest --ramp_time=60 --runtime=3600 --time_based --bs=128k --output=128K_seqW.log --log_avg_msec=1000 --write_iops_log=128K_seqW_iops.log --write_lat_log=128K_seqW_lat.log

BIOS untuned test data (869MB/s) :

BIOS untuned test data

BIOS tuning test data (871MB/s) :

BIOS tuning test data

OS Configuration

IO algorithm, queue depth, etc
OS driver and disk FW
NVMe disk drivers and FW versions affect performance

Linux I/O scheduler

If the Linux kernel is lower than 4.12, select NOOP for SSDs (none for NVMe) and CFQ for HDDs
If the value is greater than or equal to 4.12 in the Linux kernel, enable BLK_MQ, select NOOP for SSD, and mq_deadline for HDD

Modification method:
For example echo it > / sys/block/SDB/queue/scheduler

Turn off IO merge

echo 2 > /sys/block/sdb/queue/nomerges

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