Why are wafers round instead of rectangular?


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So why are wafers round rather than rectangular? In particular, the CPU and GPU bare Die we see are rectangular. Wouldn't it be better if the wafer were rectangular instead of round and could theoretically be cut into small pieces without waste?

It may start with the wafer manufacturing process of why wafers are round.

After mixing silica ore with carbon and heating it in a REDOX reaction, coarse silicon is produced, but not yet pure enough to be used in integrated circuits. Next, the coarse silicon by hydrochloric acid chloride and after distillation can get higher purity polysilicon further, then there is a very important method of the access to and crystal growth of single-crystal materials, it is called Czochralski Method, is currently the main methods of single-crystal materials for crystal growth, it can be used to polysilicon into monocrystalline silicon.

Czochralski Method
Czochralski Method

The idea is to melt the previously obtained polysilicon, placing the seed at the end of a precisely oriented rod and immersing the end in molten silicon. Then, pull the bar up slowly while rotating it. Precisely controlling the temperature gradient of the rod, the rate at which it is pulled, and the rate at which it is rotated, results in a large, cylindrical silicon rod at the end of the rod (or rather, like a sharpened pencil at both ends).

Monocrystalline silicon rods on display at the Intel Museum
Monocrystalline silicon rods on display at the Intel Museum

Silicon wafers are then sliced, ground, and polished into silicon wafers, or wafers, the basic material for integrated circuit chips. It’s sliced through a cylinder, so it’s round.

Wafers are round mainly because integrated circuit chips require monocrystalline silicon, which is mainly achieved by the Czochralski Method, which you may remember as named after Polish scientist Jan Czochralski, who invented this method in 1916 while studying the crystallization rates of metals. Today, the Chaikorsky process has evolved into one of the standard processes in steel mills.

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It’s Leo Zhi. He was born on August 1987. Major in Electronic Engineering & Business English, He is an Enthusiastic professional, a responsible person, and computer hardware & software literate. Proficient in NAND flash products for more than 10 years, critical thinking skills, outstanding leadership, excellent Teamwork, and interpersonal skills.  Understanding customer technical queries and issues, providing initial analysis and solutions. If you have any queries, Please feel free to let me know, Thanks

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