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Fundamental knowledge related to chip testing (I)

As a storage manufacturer (Diskmfr), we also pay close attention to all aspects of the IC industry chain in order to provide better value to our customers. This time we will give you the basic knowledge about chip testing.

I. The position of testing in the value chain of the chip industry

As the following Chart 1, a chip eventually to the end product, generally needs to go through the chip design, wafer manufacturing, wafer testing, packaging, finished product testing, board-level packaging, and other such links.

In the whole value chain, chip companies need to lead the link mainly in chip design and testing, the rest of the links can be led or completed by the corresponding partners.

Chart 1

II. how the test is reflected in the process of design

The following Chart 2 shows the general process of a design company when carrying out a new project, starting from market demand, to product tape out for manufacturing, including system design, logic design, circuit design, physical design, to finally start to put into manufacturing.

The bottom column indicates the relevant considerations for testing in each design process, from test architecture, test logic design, test pattern generation, to various noise/delay/failure mode synthesis, and then test pattern generation, and finally testing after manufacturing is completed, and test data are analyzed to analyze failure modes and verify R&D.

Therefore, the test itself is the design, this is needed at the beginning of the design, for the design company, the test is vital, no less than the circuit design itself.

Chart 2

The main goal of the design company is to develop the chip according to market demand, and throughout the design process, test-related issues need to be considered all the time, mainly for the following reasons.

1) As the complexity of the chip turns out to be higher and higher, more and more modules inside the chip, the manufacturing process is also more and more advanced, corresponding to more and more failure modes, and how to be able to test the entire chip completely and effectively, in the design process needs to be considered more and more weight.
(2) design, manufacturing, and even testing itself, will bring certain failure, how to ensure that the design of the chip to meet the design goals, how to ensure that the chip manufactured to meet the required yield, how to ensure the quality and effectiveness of the test itself, so as to provide customers with products that meet product specifications, quality qualified products, these requirements must be considered at the beginning of the design of the test program.
3) Cost considerations. The earlier the failure is detected, the more unnecessary waste can be reduced; the higher the redundancy in design and manufacturing, the better the yield of the final product can be provided; at the same time, if more meaningful test data can be obtained, it can in turn provide useful information to the design and manufacturing side, thus enabling the latter to effectively analyze failure modes and improve design and manufacturing yields.

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